Manganese is an essential nutrient, required in trace amounts for human health.
- The presence of black stains, particles and metallic taste often makes it obvious that manganese is present in the water even without water testing.
- Initially clear water that subsequently forms black solid particles over time contains reduced manganese.
- Dissolved or reduced manganese is most common in groundwater with a pH less than 7.0.
- Solid black particles that appear immediately in water contain the oxidized form of manganese.
- Manganese toxicity targets the brain and central nervous system.
Exposures to Manganese.
- Exposures to manganese in drinking water are much lower than the high inhalation exposures seen in industry that have been associated with severe neurological and neuromuscular effects.
Infants and manganese.
- However, elevated manganese in drinking water is of particular concern for formula-fed infants.
- Infants will absorb a higher amount of manganese than the rest of the family.
- Did you know that infant milk formula is already supplemented with manganese.
- Infants also tend to absorb more manganese and have a reduced capacity to excrete it.
- Treatment for manganese removal includes water softening, oxidizing filters, polyphosphate addition, or oxidizing always followed by the application of filtration.
- Less common treatments include ozonation, aeration, and catalytic carbon.